Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations
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Nation to Nation explores the promises, diplomacy, and betrayals involved in treaties and treaty making between the United States government and Native Nations. One side sought to own the riches of North America and the other struggled to hold on to traditional homelands and ways of life. The book reveals how the ideas of honor, fair dealings, good faith, rule of law, and peaceful relations between nations have been tested and challenged in historical and modern times. The book consistently demonstrates how and why centuries-old treaties remain living, relevant documents for both Natives and non-Natives in the 21st century.
(October 1990): 528. 14 An ordinance for the government of the territory of the United States, Northwest of the river Ohio, July 17, 1787, Journals of the Continental Congress, 32: 334–43, http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/bdsdcc.22501. 15 George Washington to the Commissioners Negotiating a Treaty with the Southern Indians, August 29, 1789, in The Writings of George Washington, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1931–44), 30:392. 16 Lehman, “The End of the
Press, 1939), 130–33. 12 Thomas H. Harvey, superintendent, St. Louis Superintendency, to Commissioner of Indian Affairs William Medill, May 6, 1846, enclosing petition from the Brule and Oglala Lakota chiefs forwarded by Indian agent Andrew Dripps, Letters received by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Upper Missouri Agency, M234, roll 884, document 1846-H2279, National Archives and Records Administration. 13 9 Stat. 570, 572. 14 For biographical sketches, see Ray H. Mattison, “David
Since 1975 she has developed key federal Indian law, including the most important national policy advances in the modern era for the protection of Native American ancestors, arts, cultures, languages, and religious freedom. A poet and an award-winning columnist, her work appears in numerous publications, and she received the Institute of American Indian Arts’ first honorary doctorate of humanities awarded to a woman. Dr. Harjo is a founder of the National Museum of the American Indian and has
Lawrence, Kansas. Harjo Family Collection, Washington, DC Susie Eades Douglas and Freeland Douglas with the author as a baby, 1945. Oklahoma. Harjo Family Collection, Washington, DC Dad met Mom at Chilocco. Susie Eades Douglas (Cheyenne and Pawnee, 1921–2003) was born in Pawnee, Oklahoma. She remembered her education at Chilocco as being punctuated by the admonition to be a “good Indian” and a “good girl,” and by her fear of being a “bad Indian.” While Dad was fighting in Europe, she earned her
What happened to the Pawnee also happened to other Indian Peoples. Rather than working cooperatively with Native Nations to find solutions based on the principles of fairness, justice, human dignity, and equitable treatment, U.S. policy makers plotted and implemented a course of action that left Indians on the brink of extinction, politically subjugated, impoverished, and struggling to maintain their identities and cultures. Surviving Pawnee scouts, ca. 1927. Oklahoma. Photo by Marion Tomblin.