Lincoln and Grant: The Westerners Who Won the Civil War
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smile, “I suppose covers the case.” Encouraging Grant’s input, the president closed by writing, “Always glad to have your suggestions.” For the latter half of the war, Lincoln encouraged the recruitment and use of black soldiers and sailors to support the Union cause. Recruiting of blacks began in July 1862 under the authority of the confiscation acts and other laws. While McClellan, Sherman and others opposed the president on this issue, Grant immediately was fully supportive and worked with
1129. Grant’s appointment as brigadier general was backdated to May 17, 1861, making him thirty-fifth in seniority in the U.S. Army (headed by Winfield Scott). Smith, Grant, 113. 13. Grant to Captain Speed Butler, August 23, 1861, Papers of Grant, vol. 2, 131. The “Pillow” reference is to Confederate Brigadier General Gideon J. Pillow, who gained notoriety in the Mexican War for having a ditch dug on the wrong side of his fortifications. 14. Smith, Grant, 116. 15. Grant, Memoirs,
rivers formed the Yazoo. The expedition, however, was repelled by Confederate fire from the fort. After destroying another levee on the Mississippi in an unsuccessful effort to flood Fort Pemberton, the Union fleet retreated.40 Grant’s second effort on the east side of the Mississippi consisted of an Admiral Porter-led fleet of five gunboats, four mortar-boats, and troop-carrying river steamers trying to wend their way through another series of waterways to the Yazoo River about ten air miles
strength, and Grant went on the offensive. On November 23 Thomas’s men moved toward Missionary Ridge and occupied Orchard Knob. That day’s success brought relief to Lincoln; that night Hay noted, “Got news tonight of Grant’s advance on the enemy at Chattanooga & Thomas success. The President who had been a little despondent abt Grant took heart again.”29 The next day Sherman crossed the Tennessee and attacked the Rebel right flank while Hooker captured Lookout Mountain on the Confederate left.
Livingston that the government or private supporters purchase controlling interests in the allegedly thirty-six remaining newspapers in the Confederacy. Seward surprisingly thought the idea “very judicious and wise” and suggested that Stanton or Thurlow Weed might be able to provide funding.20 Nothing came of this idea. Two days later Lincoln declared the Union-controlled ports of Norfolk, Virginia, and Fernandina and Pensacola, Florida, exempt from the Union blockade.21 Emancipation remained on